As Singapore works towards turning into a Smart Nation, it is critical to strike a harmony between utilizing Big Data to change the economy and information security. On the business front, information identifying with singular practices and inclinations have converted into an upper hand for some associations. Be that as it may, while numerous associations have perceived the estimation of information as the new fuel for development, not all are very much arranged for the quick advancing information control scene, both locally and over the globe.

As of late, Singapore’s Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC) proposed a modification to the current Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA), which will expect associations to advise clients of individual information ruptures when they are found. Associations should likewise report the break inside 72 hours. This will add to the current PDPA which contains different tenets administering the gathering, utilize, revelation and care of individual information in Singapore. Quick advances in advances -, for example, the capacity of gadgets to consistently gather and transmit individual information crosswise over systems – exhibit challenges for agree based ways to deal with individual information assurance. It is basic for associations to be careful that the proposed audit will possibly affect their associations on the off chance that they procedure individual information for inward utilize or in the interest of another association.

Received in April 2016, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) expects organizations to secure the individual information and protection of EU natives for exchanges that happen inside EU part states. The new control, which will produce results from May 25, 2018, will incorporate an outline of where and how individual information – including charge card subtle elements, saving money and wellbeing records – is put away and exchanged.

In spite of the fact that GDPR may appear to influence just those living in the EU, neighborhood organizations ought not expel the controls, particularly since Singapore is by a long shot the EU’s biggest business accomplice in Asean, representing around 33% of EU-Asean exchange products and ventures, and approximately 66% of speculations between the two districts.

A current report by Veritas has recognized a steady pattern among neighborhood associations. It proposes that organizations have a predominant measure of ROT (excess, outdated and minor) and dull information put away on premises and in the cloud. On the off chance that left unchecked, business information will superfluously cost associations around the globe a combined US$ 3.3 trillion by 2020.

As indicated by the most recent Veritas think about on GDPR, the greater part of associations in Singapore (56 for each penny) are worried that they won’t have the capacity to meet the new EU necessities, and just 18 for each penny feel they are as of now GDPR-agreeable. Be that as it may, it is urging to take note of that 95 for every penny of the associations here arrangement to drive behaviourial changes through preparing, rewards and contracts to help guarantee that they agree to GDPR approaches.

Despite the disturbing measurements, it is not out of the question to recognize that the greatest test for some associations in Singapore is understanding what information dwells in their unpredictable IT situations, how to shield the information and erase it from the system when asked for or when it’s never again required. Veritas explore likewise demonstrates that a third (34 for each penny) of associations in Singapore don’t have the correct innovation set up to adapt to GDPR. With only a half year to go before the guidelines produce results, associations should hope to build up a plainly characterized administration system with information administration apparatuses at the center.

Similarly as with any new direction, organizations should know about the dangers of indictment and breaking the standards of GDPR, which could bring about tremendous punishments of up to four for each penny of worldwide turnover or 20 million euros (S$32 million), whichever is more prominent. In any case, the seriousness of the inability to go along won’t simply end with these punishments.

Being rebellious to GDPR could possibly devastatingly affect an association’s image picture, particularly if and when a consistence disappointment is made open, conceivably because of the new commitments to inform information ruptures to those influenced. Other unfavorable outcomes incorporate the depreciation of the brand and also the loss of client reliability – which most organizations fear. As per the same Veritas consider on GDPR, 20 for each penny of the organizations overviewed expect that negative media or social scope could make their association lose clients.

To remain GDPR-agreeable, organizations can take after these rules to guarantee that their association is held under tight restraints:


The basic initial phase in consenting to GDPR is picking up an all encompassing comprehension of where all the individual information held by your association is found. Building an information guide of where this data is being put away, who approaches it, to what extent it is being held, and where it is being moved is basic to seeing how your endeavor is preparing and overseeing individual information.


Inhabitants of the EU would now be able to ask for perceivability into the majority of the individual information hung on them by presenting a Subject Access Request (SAR). They can likewise ask for that the information be remedied (if really wrong), ported (to a reasonable fare arrange) or erased. Guaranteeing that your association can attempt and administration these solicitations in an opportune way is basic to maintaining a strategic distance from GDPR punishments.


Information minimisation, one of the fundamental precepts of GDPR, is intended to guarantee that associations decrease the general measure of put away individual information. This is finished by keeping individual information just for the timeframe straightforwardly identified with the first expected reason. Conveying and authorizing maintenance strategies that consequently terminate information after some time would build up the foundation of your GDPR technique.


Under GDPR, associations have a general commitment to execute specialized and hierarchical measures to indicate they have considered and coordinated information assurance into all information accumulation and preparing exercises. Associations may profit by existing warning administrations that are accessible to teach and exchange learning to worldwide legitimate, consistence and protection groups in the matter of how the arrangement can help address the GDPR difficulty.


GDPR requires all associations to report certain kinds of information ruptures to the important supervisory specialist, and now and again to the people influenced. You ought to guarantee that you have abilities set up to screen for conceivable ruptures -, for example, surprising or abnormal document get to designs – and to rapidly trigger announcing techniques.

By following these accepted procedures, organizations would have the capacity to agree to GDPR and different directions, for example, PDPA. Organizations would likewise build up information administration capacities that are more powerful and agreeable than previously. To stay aware of the changing innovation scene, it is more critical than any time in recent memory to have the fitting information administration measures set up, to guarantee that organizations are on the correct side of the law.

1) DevOps ! How can you define it in your words ?

Its highly effective daily collaboration between software developers and IT operations / web operation engineers to produce a working system or release software.

A devOps implementation is generally aligned with Agile methodologies where deploying working software to Production is generally the highest priority. On Agile implementations, emphasis is placed on people over processes, so a DevOps engineer must be willing to work very closely with Agile development teams to ensure they have an environment necessary to support functions such as automated testing, continuous Integration and continuous Delivery. On a traditional implementation, without DevOps, the operations team is often isolated from developers, often working under a help desk model under general service level agreements where the system operations team treats developers as a customer. This is a proven model which obviously can work very well, but in a DevOps environment, development and operations are streamlined and barriers between the two groups should not exist.

2) Why we need DevOps ?

Companies are now facing the need to delivering more and faster and better applications to meet the ever more pressing demands of conscious users to reduce the ” Time To Market “. Devops often helps deployment to happen very fast.

3) What is agile development and Scrum ?

Agile development used as an alternative to Waterfall development practice. In Agile, the development process is more iterative and incremental, there is more testing and feedback at every stage of development as opposed to only the last stage in Waterfall.

Scrum is used to manage complex software and product development, using iterative and incremental practices. Scrum has three roles ie product owner, scrum master, and team.

4) Can we consider DevOps as an agile methodology ?

Of course! DevOps is a movement to reconcile and synchronize development and production start through a set of good practices . Its emergence is motivated by a deep changing demands of business, who want to speed up the changes to stick closer to the requirements of business and the customer.

5) What is DevOps engineer’s duty with regards to Agile development ?

DevOps engineer work very closely with Agile development teams to ensure they have an environment necessary to support functions such as automated testing, continuous Integration and continuous Delivery. DevOps engineer must be in constant contact with the developers and make all required parts of environment work seamlessly.

Technical Questions

6) Have you worked on  containers ? 

Containers are form of lightweight virtualization, more heavy than chroot but lighter than hypervisors. They provide isolation among processes while using same kernel as the host machine, and cgroups functionality within kernel. But container formats differ among themselves in a way that some provide more VM-like experience while other containerize only application.

LXC containers are most VM-like and most heavy weight, while Docker used to be more light weight and was initially designed for single application container. But in more recent releases Docker introduced whole machine containerization features so now Docker can be used both ways. There is also rkt from CoreOS and LXD from Canonical, which builds upon LXC.

7) What is Kubernetes? Explain

It is massively scalable tool for managing containers, made by Google. It is used internally on huge deployments and because of that it is maybe the best option for production use of containers. It supports self healing by restating non responsive containers, it pack containers in a way that they take less resources and has many other great features.

8) What is the function of CI (Continuous Integration) server ? 

CI server function is to continuously integrate all changes being made and committed to repository by different developers and check for compile errors. It needs to build code several times a day, preferably after every commit so it can detect which commit made the breakage if the breakage happens.

Note: Other available and popular CI tools are  Jenkins, TeamCity, CircleCI , Hudson, Buildbot etc

9) What is Continuous Delivery ?

Is it practice of delivering the software for testing as soon as it is build by CI (Continuous Integration) server’s. It requires heavy use of Versioning Control System for so always available to developers and testers alike.

10) What is Vagrant and what is it used for ?

Vagrant is a tool that can create and manage virtualized (or containerized)  environments for testing and developing software. At first, Vagrant used virtualbox as the hypervisor for virtual environments, but now it supports also KVM.

11) Do you ever used any scripting language ? 

As far as scripting languages go, the simpler the better. In fact, the language itself isn’t as important as understanding design patterns and development paradigms such as procedural, object-oriented, or functional programming.

Currently, several scripting languages are available so the question arises : what is the most appropriate language for DevOps approach?  Simply everything , it depends on the context of the project and tools used for example if Ansible used its good have knowledge in Python  and if its for Chef its on Ruby.

12) What is the role of a configuration management tool in devops ?

Automation plays an essential role in server configuration management. For that purpose we use CM tools , they store information about versions and builds of the software and testware and provide the traceability between software and testware.

13) What is the purpose of CM tools and which one you have used ?

Configuration Management tools’ purpose is to automatize deployment and configuration of software on big number of servers. Most CM tools usually use agent architecture which means that every machine being manged needs to have agent installed. My favorite tool is one that uses agentless architecture – Ansible. It only requires SSH and Python. And if raw module is being used, not even Python is required because it can run raw bash commands. Other available and popular CM tools are Puppet, Chef, SaltStack.

14) What is OpenStack ?

OpenStack is often called Cloud Operating System, and that is not far from the truth. It is the complete environment for deploying IaaS which gives you possibility of making your own cloud similar to AWS. It is highly modular and consists of many sub-projects so you can pick and chose which functionality you need. OpenStack distribution are available from Red Hat, Mirantis, HPE, Oracle, Canonical and many others. It is completely open source project but some vendors make proprietary distributions.

15) Classify Cloud Platforms anategory ?

Cloud Computing software can be classified as Software as a Service or SaaS, Infrastructure as a Service or IaaS and Platform as a Service or PaaS.

SaaS is peace of software that runs over network on remote server and has only user interface exposed to users, usually in web browser. For example

Infrastructure as a service is a cloud environment that exposes VM to user to use as entire OS or container where you could install anything you would install on your server. Example for this would be OpenStack, AWS, Eucalyptus.
PaaS allows users to deploy their own application on the preinstalled platform, usually framework of application server and suite of developer tools. Examples for this would be OpenShHeroku.

16) What are easiest ways to build a small cloud ?

VMfest is one one of the options for making IaaS cloud from VirtualBox VMs in no time. If you want a lightweight PaaS there is Dokku which is basically a bash script that makes PaaS out of Dokku containers.

17) What is AWS (Amazon Web Services)? Did got chance to work on Amazon tools ?

AWS provides a set of flexible services designed to enable companies to create and deliver products with greater speed and reliability using AWS and DevOps practices . These services simplify commissioning and infrastructure management , application code deployment , automated software release process and monitoring of the application and infrastructure performance. Amazon used tools like AWS CodeCommit, AWS CodeDeploy, AWS CodePipeline etc, that helps to make devops easier.

18) What is EC2 ?

Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS) is a highly scalable container management service and high performance that supports the Docker containers and allows you to easily run applications on a cluster managed by Amazon EC2 instances.

The EC2 service is inseparable from the concept of Amazon Machine Image – AMI . The May is Indeed the image of a virtual machine That Will Be Executed . EC2 based on XEN virtualization , that’s why it is quite easy to move XEN servers to EC2 .

19) Do you find any advantage of using NoSQL database over RDBMS ?

Typical web applications are built with a three-tier architecture. To carry the load, more Web servers are simply added behind a load balancer to support more users. The ability to scale out is a key principle in the world of cloud computing, more and more important in which VM instances can be easily added or removed to meet demand.

However, when it comes to the data layer, relational databases (RDBMS) does not allow a passage to the simple scale and do not provide a flexible data model. Manage more users means adding more servers and large servers are very complex, owners and disproportionately expensive, in contrast to low-cost hardware, the “commodity hardware”, architectures in the cloud. Organizations are beginning to see performance issues with their relational databases for existing or new applications. Especially as the number of users increases, they realize the need for a faster and more flexible basis. This is the time to begin to assess and adopt NoSQL database like in their Web applications.

20) What are the main SQL migration difficulties NoSQL ?

Each record in a relational database according to a schema – with a fixed number of fields (columns) each having a specified object and a data type. Each record is the same. The data is denormalized in several tables. The advantage is that there is less of duplicate data in the database. The downside is that a change in the pattern means performing several “alter table” that require expensive to lock multiple tables simultaneously to ensure that change does not leave the database in an inconsistent state.

With databases data, on the other hand, each document can have a completely different structure from other documents. No additional management is required on the database to manage changes in the schemes.

21) What are the benefits of NoSQL databases Documents ?

The main advantages of document databases are the following :

  • flexible data model data can be inserted without a defined schema and format of the data that is inserted can change at any time , providing extreme flexibility , which ultimately allows a significant agility to business
  • Consistent , high-performance Advanced NoSQL database technologies are putting cache data , transparently, in system memory ; a behavior that is completely transparent to the developer and the team in charge of operations .
  • Some easy scalability NoSQL databases automatically propagate data between servers , requiring no participation applications. Servers can be added and removed without disruption to applications , with data and I/O spread across multiple servers.

22 ) What are the main advantages of Git over CVS ?

The biggest advantage is that Git is distributed while CVS is centralised. Changes in CVS are per file, while changes (commits) in Git they always refer to the whole project. Git offers much more tools than CVS.

23) Difference between containers and virtual machines ?

Each VM instantiation requires starting a full OS. VMs take up a lot of system resources. This quickly adds up to a lot of RAM and CPU cycles. Container host uses the process and file system isolation features of the linux kernel.

24)  What is CoreOS, and what are alternatives ?

CoreOS is striped down linux distribution meant for running containters, mainly with its own rkt format but others are also supported. It was initially based on ChromeOS and supported Docker. The alternatives to this are canonical’s ubuntu snappy or red hat enterprise linux atomic host. Of course, Containers can also be ran on regular Linux system.

25)  What is Kickstart ?

It is a way to install Red Hat based systems by automated way. During manual install process, Anaconda installer creates file anaconda-ks.cfg which then can be used with system-config-kickstart tool to install same configuration automatically on multiple systems.

26) What are tools for network monitoring? List few

For example, Nagios, Icinga 2, OpenNMS, Splunk and Wireshark. Those tools are used to monitor network traffic, network quality and detect network problems even before they arise. Of those listed, only Splunk is proprietary other are open source.

27) What is Juju ?

Juju is orchestration tool primarily for ubuntu for management, provision and configuration on Ubuntu systems. It is was initially written in Python and since have been rewritten in Go.

28) Give me an examples of how you would handle projects ?

As a DevOps engineer, I would demonstrate a clear understanding of DevOps project management tactics and also work with teams to set objectives, streamline workflow, maintain scope, research and introduce new tools or frameworks, translate requirements into workflow and follow up. I would resort to CI, release management and other tools to keep interdisciplinary projects on track.

29) What is post mortem meetings ?

It is a meeting where we discuss what went wrong and what steps should be taken so that failure doesn’t happen again. Post mortem meetings are not about finding the one to be blamed, they are for preventing outages from reoccurring and planing redesign of the infrastructure so that downtime can be minimised. It is about learning from mistakes.

30) What you know about serverless model ?

Serverless refers to a model where the existence of servers is hidden from developers. It means you no longer have to deal with capacity, deployments, scaling and fault tolerance and OS. It will essentially reducing maintenance efforts and allow developers to quickly focus on developing codes.

Examples are Amazon AWS Lambda and Auth0 serveless platform.

Devops Example : Deploying Applications with Ansible

Ansible is a lightweight, extensible solution for automating your application provisioning. Ansible has no dependencies other than Python and SSH. It doesn’t require any agents to be set up on the remote hosts and it doesn’t leave any traces after it runs either. It allows you to significantly simplify our operations by creating easy YAML based playbooks. It’s good for configuration automation, deployments and orchestration.

Components of Ansible

Playbooks : Ansible playbooks are a way to send commands to remote computers in a scripted way. Instead of using Ansible commands individually to remotely configure computers from the command line, you can configure entire complex environments by passing a script to one or more systems.

Ansible playbooks are written in the YAML data serialization format. If you don’t know what a data serialization format is, think of it as a way to translate a programmatic data structure (lists, arrays, dictionaries, etc) into a format that can be easily stored to disk. The file can then be used to recreate the structure at a later point. JSON is another popular data serialization format, but YAML is much easier to read.

Let’s look at a basic playbook that allow us to install a web application (nginx) in a multiple hosts :

hosts: webservers
– name: Installs nginx web server
apt: pkg=nginx state=installed update_cache=true
– start nginx

– name: start nginx
service: name=nginx state=started

The hosts file : (by default under /etc/ansible/hosts) this is the Ansible Inventory file, and it stores the hosts, and their mappings to the host groups (webservers ,databases etc)

# example of setting a host inventory by IP address.
# also demonstrates how to set per-host variables.[repository_servers] example-repository
#example of setting a host by hostname. Requires local lookup in /etc/hosts
# or DNS.
[dbservers] db01

The SSH key : For the first run, we’ll need to tell ansible the SSH and Sudo passwords, because one of the thing that the common role does is to configure passwordless sudo, and deploy a SSH key. So in this case ansible can execute the playbook’s commands in the remote nodes (hosts ) and deploy the web application nginx.


Those are some of the questions you might encounter during the interview but when learning about DevOps concepts you by no means should only concentrate on those read everything and anything related to Linux and open source and try any software you might be of any use to you. This article hopefully gives idea where to start. Thank you for reading.

February 11, 2015

It’s mostly an opinion: who loves Microsoft’s world will tell you that is better even for job opportunities… who prefers the rest, will say that php is better and will point you the huge amount of sites done with php (and open source cms and so on…), which are more than asp sites. Ever since Microsoft has come up with, there has been a widespread debate among programmers as to whether it is any better than the existing open source programming language of PHP.

php vs asp
php vs asp


If you were to make a search on the Internet on how loyalists of both PHP and are doing almost everything by biting each other’s heads off, you will realize how hot this debate actually is. The major contention is that Microsoft products are generally considered to be superior to other products, but then there are programmers that have been using PHP since ages and never once has it let them down. While there is acclaim for being more robust and speedier, PHP fans maintain that PHP has much better support and a very easy to understand language.


php vs asp


As the debate between PHP and rages on, it is important to make a frank comparison between the two languages, so that other developers who are not so strong in their opinions are not caught in the argument between the two.

Both are better, both are Faster and both can write any kind of program. supports a huge framework and has many built components and has a grate editing environment (Visual Studio ) through which you can easily write Asp program without worrying about case sensitivity, while PHP editing tool is work such like a notepad. For what a programmer need much strong programming knowledge and syntax.


php vs asp


php vs asp
php vs asp
php vs asp

PHP is easy to learn.  PHP has a wider community.  PHP is not too true to OOP (Object Oriented Programming).

.NET may be tricky at first for beginners.  .NET is very true to OOP.  .NET community is always up to date with the new trends and changes.

PHP can run on almost all platforms. NET will require windows with .NET framework.

PHP is better for those who feel close to PHP and have worked on it for years.  .NET is better for those who have love for windows.  It’s an individuals liking or choice of the programming language they want to use.  PHP is better in its own world and .NET is better in its own arena.

August 2, 2013



1 Higher education aspirants have many choices — from the national open university to 14 state open varsities

2 Most of the institutes will have placement cells, so finding a job will not be a problem later

3 If you apply for a course to an open learning institute, ensure they have study centres near your place

4 The location of the university’s examination centre also counts if you are unable to travel long distances. Ensure the universities have centres in your city

5 If you have applied for a regular college and are also studying from an open university, ensure that your examination dates do not clash. You will have huge problems if they do

6 Find out when the open universities schedule their personal contact programme (PCP) classes. Most of them hand out study material and get in some of their best faculty members for lectures. Missing the classes don’t make sense

7 More on PCPs: These help you network and link with other students in your programme. Peer learning in the absence of regular teachers or classes, trading notes, chatting online with the friends you’ve made in PCP classes can aid your studies

8 Language is important: If you are applying to an open university in another state, check the medium of instruction for your course





The open and distance learning (ODL) mode of study gives you a bouquet of choices – from a  pottery course, a vocational and entrepreneurial programme in beekeeping, to a qualification in sericulture and a diploma in fish processing. Whether you are a student wanting to take up a job along with an undergraduate degree, a lawyer wishing to pursue a qualification in history, a teacher with a love for plantation, an engineer aiming for an MBA, or a homemaker planning to study economics, you can follow your ambition through the ODL mode. This system gives you the flexibility and choice to join a course irrespective of who you are or where you are based.


ODL scenario
Globally, the major types of institutions/universities offering education through the ODL mode include dedicated open universities that offer programmes only through distance mode and dual style universities set up to provide correspondence courses. Another category is that of institutions offering conventional classroom-based programmes, distance education qualifications and online education.

According to RK Gupta, former member of the Distance Education Council, “Distance learning offers education at an affordable cost. There are many meritorious students who cannot afford to pursue higher education. Not everyone can study in cities like Delhi and Mumbai… a large number of students belong to remote and rural areas and cannot go to a regular college. The ODL system offers hope and opportunities to these aspirants.”

Gupta says that majorly, there are three types of students who prefer to join the ODL mode. These include those who don’t get into regular colleges, those who are working and want to pursue conventional or professional courses, and those who are otherwise eligible but cannot afford regular education.

As per the NR Madhava Menon Committee report on ODL, ODL constitutes about 21.9% of total enrolment in the conventional system. However, enrolment in technical and professional courses in the ODL system is less than 10%.

The enrolment in open universities and distance education institutions in 2009-10 was more than 36 lakh. The share of distance education increased from 2.6% in 1975-76 to 8.9% in 1985-86 and was improved to 10.7% in 1990-91 and to 20.56% in 2008-09.

Student support
When it comes to the methods and tools used to impart education, the ODL system has come a long way. From a correspondence degree based on print material to self-instructional study packages with an integrated multi-media approach, virtual learning has got a boost. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to provide flexible and cost-effective programmes has also made this system popular.

Challenges ahead
The ODL system is now growing faster compared to the conventional system. “One of the major challenges that need to be addressed is quality assurance and use of an innovative approach to impart education. Steps like providing access to video lectures by top faculty of the top institutions will solve the problem of giving access to higher education to each student. Students should also check the recognition of the institution, course material and quality of the programme before enrolling,” says Sudhanshu Bhushan, professor, higher and professional education, National University of Education Planning and Administration, who specialises in policy analysis and planning of higher education.

“The growth and access to ICT will revolutionise higher education.  E-learning modules, multimedia case studies, video tutorials need to be given a push,” he adds.

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August 2, 2013

Free Linux Console

The idea behind the website is to help all novice linux users to use the raw linux commands in its core.

As not all the students or community can buy or host a linux server.



Howto check battery status?

Open the Terminal and type the following command:



acpi -i -b

Sample outputs:

Fig.01: Showing acpi battery status on Linux

Use upower command to get battery status

On the latest version of Linux try:

upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT0

Sample outputs:

Fig.02: Displaying battery info using upower
September 5, 2012

What is POSIX?

POSIX defines the application programming interface (API), along with Unix command line shells and utility interfaces. This ensure software compatibility with flavors of Unix and other operating systems. The POSIX shell is implemented for many UNIX like operating systems. The POSIX standard is designed to be used by both application programmers and system administrators. Most of the POSIX Shell features are similar to the Korn Shell. The following perating systems are 100% compliant with various POSIX standards:

  • A/UX
  • AIX
  • HP-UX
  • IRIX
  • OS X
  • QNX
  • Solaris
  • Tru64
  • UnixWare
September 5, 2012

What is UNIX / Linux Korn Shell?

Korn Shell is developed by David Korn at Bell Laboratories

It is upwardly compatible with most Bourne shell features.

It has interactive features like C Shell, but executes faster and has extended inline command editing capability.

The ksh93 version supports associative arrays and built-in floating point arithmetic.

Korn Shell Features

  1. Command history – Yes
  2. Line editing – Yes
  3. File name completion – Yes
  4. Alias command – Yes
  5. Restricted shells – Yes
  6. Job control – Yes


All shell scripts for the KSH shell start with the first line:


This is called a shebang, a hashbang, hashpling, or pound bang. The following is a KSH shell script file example:

echo "Hello World!"

You can find ksh path using which command:
$ which ksh

Setup a root user password

To setup root password for first time, use mysqladmin command at shell prompt as follows:
$ mysqladmin -u root password NEWPASSWO
If you want to change or update a root user password, then you need to use the following command:
$ mysqladmin -u root -p'oldpassword' password newpass

Procedure for setting up a MySQL user account

Login in as mysql root user. At shell prompt type the following command:

$ mysql -u root -p


$ mysql -u root -h your-mysql-server-host-name -p

Create a new mysql database called demo. Type the following command at mysql>prompt:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE demo;

Create a new user called user1 for database called demo:

mysql> GRANT ALL ON demo.* TO user1@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'mypassword';

How do I connect to MySQL database demo using user1 account?

User user1 can connect to demo database using the following shell command:

$ mysql -u user1 -p demo


$ mysql -u user1 -h  your-mysql-server-host-name-here -p demo


  • -u user1 : MySQL Username
  • -h : MySQL server name (default is localhost)
  • -p : Prompt for password
  • demo: demo is name of mysql database (optional)
September 5, 2012

You can use any one of the following commands. First login as root user (or use su – to become a root).

Once logged in as root type the reboot command to reboot the system:
# reboot
You can use schedule reboot with the shutdown command. The following will reboot Solaris box in 180 seconds with a message:

shutdown -y -i6 -g 180 " ==== Rebooting for kernel and apps upgrades ====="

You can also reboot using a specific disk and/or kernel. The following example reboots using a specific disk called disk2 and kernel:

reboot "disk2"