As Singapore works towards turning into a Smart Nation, it is critical to strike a harmony between utilizing Big Data to change the economy and information security. On the business front, information identifying with singular practices and inclinations have converted into an upper hand for some associations. Be that as it may, while numerous associations have perceived the estimation of information as the new fuel for development, not all are very much arranged for the quick advancing information control scene, both locally and over the globe.

As of late, Singapore’s Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC) proposed a modification to the current Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA), which will expect associations to advise clients of individual information ruptures when they are found. Associations should likewise report the break inside 72 hours. This will add to the current PDPA which contains different tenets administering the gathering, utilize, revelation and care of individual information in Singapore. Quick advances in advances -, for example, the capacity of gadgets to consistently gather and transmit individual information crosswise over systems – exhibit challenges for agree based ways to deal with individual information assurance. It is basic for associations to be careful that the proposed audit will possibly affect their associations on the off chance that they procedure individual information for inward utilize or in the interest of another association.

Received in April 2016, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) expects organizations to secure the individual information and protection of EU natives for exchanges that happen inside EU part states. The new control, which will produce results from May 25, 2018, will incorporate an outline of where and how individual information – including charge card subtle elements, saving money and wellbeing records – is put away and exchanged.

In spite of the fact that GDPR may appear to influence just those living in the EU, neighborhood organizations ought not expel the controls, particularly since Singapore is by a long shot the EU’s biggest business accomplice in Asean, representing around 33% of EU-Asean exchange products and ventures, and approximately 66% of speculations between the two districts.

A current report by Veritas has recognized a steady pattern among neighborhood associations. It proposes that organizations have a predominant measure of ROT (excess, outdated and minor) and dull information put away on premises and in the cloud. On the off chance that left unchecked, business information will superfluously cost associations around the globe a combined US$ 3.3 trillion by 2020.

As indicated by the most recent Veritas think about on GDPR, the greater part of associations in Singapore (56 for each penny) are worried that they won’t have the capacity to meet the new EU necessities, and just 18 for each penny feel they are as of now GDPR-agreeable. Be that as it may, it is urging to take note of that 95 for every penny of the associations here arrangement to drive behaviourial changes through preparing, rewards and contracts to help guarantee that they agree to GDPR approaches.

Despite the disturbing measurements, it is not out of the question to recognize that the greatest test for some associations in Singapore is understanding what information dwells in their unpredictable IT situations, how to shield the information and erase it from the system when asked for or when it’s never again required. Veritas explore likewise demonstrates that a third (34 for each penny) of associations in Singapore don’t have the correct innovation set up to adapt to GDPR. With only a half year to go before the guidelines produce results, associations should hope to build up a plainly characterized administration system with information administration apparatuses at the center.

Similarly as with any new direction, organizations should know about the dangers of indictment and breaking the standards of GDPR, which could bring about tremendous punishments of up to four for each penny of worldwide turnover or 20 million euros (S$32 million), whichever is more prominent. In any case, the seriousness of the inability to go along won’t simply end with these punishments.

Being rebellious to GDPR could possibly devastatingly affect an association’s image picture, particularly if and when a consistence disappointment is made open, conceivably because of the new commitments to inform information ruptures to those influenced. Other unfavorable outcomes incorporate the depreciation of the brand and also the loss of client reliability – which most organizations fear. As per the same Veritas consider on GDPR, 20 for each penny of the organizations overviewed expect that negative media or social scope could make their association lose clients.

To remain GDPR-agreeable, organizations can take after these rules to guarantee that their association is held under tight restraints:


The basic initial phase in consenting to GDPR is picking up an all encompassing comprehension of where all the individual information held by your association is found. Building an information guide of where this data is being put away, who approaches it, to what extent it is being held, and where it is being moved is basic to seeing how your endeavor is preparing and overseeing individual information.


Inhabitants of the EU would now be able to ask for perceivability into the majority of the individual information hung on them by presenting a Subject Access Request (SAR). They can likewise ask for that the information be remedied (if really wrong), ported (to a reasonable fare arrange) or erased. Guaranteeing that your association can attempt and administration these solicitations in an opportune way is basic to maintaining a strategic distance from GDPR punishments.


Information minimisation, one of the fundamental precepts of GDPR, is intended to guarantee that associations decrease the general measure of put away individual information. This is finished by keeping individual information just for the timeframe straightforwardly identified with the first expected reason. Conveying and authorizing maintenance strategies that consequently terminate information after some time would build up the foundation of your GDPR technique.


Under GDPR, associations have a general commitment to execute specialized and hierarchical measures to indicate they have considered and coordinated information assurance into all information accumulation and preparing exercises. Associations may profit by existing warning administrations that are accessible to teach and exchange learning to worldwide legitimate, consistence and protection groups in the matter of how the arrangement can help address the GDPR difficulty.


GDPR requires all associations to report certain kinds of information ruptures to the important supervisory specialist, and now and again to the people influenced. You ought to guarantee that you have abilities set up to screen for conceivable ruptures -, for example, surprising or abnormal document get to designs – and to rapidly trigger announcing techniques.

By following these accepted procedures, organizations would have the capacity to agree to GDPR and different directions, for example, PDPA. Organizations would likewise build up information administration capacities that are more powerful and agreeable than previously. To stay aware of the changing innovation scene, it is more critical than any time in recent memory to have the fitting information administration measures set up, to guarantee that organizations are on the correct side of the law.

Howto check battery status?

Open the Terminal and type the following command:



acpi -i -b

Sample outputs:

Fig.01: Showing acpi battery status on Linux

Use upower command to get battery status

On the latest version of Linux try:

upower -i /org/freedesktop/UPower/devices/battery_BAT0

Sample outputs:

Fig.02: Displaying battery info using upower
September 5, 2012

What is POSIX?

POSIX defines the application programming interface (API), along with Unix command line shells and utility interfaces. This ensure software compatibility with flavors of Unix and other operating systems. The POSIX shell is implemented for many UNIX like operating systems. The POSIX standard is designed to be used by both application programmers and system administrators. Most of the POSIX Shell features are similar to the Korn Shell. The following perating systems are 100% compliant with various POSIX standards:

  • A/UX
  • AIX
  • HP-UX
  • IRIX
  • OS X
  • QNX
  • Solaris
  • Tru64
  • UnixWare
September 5, 2012

What is UNIX / Linux Korn Shell?

Korn Shell is developed by David Korn at Bell Laboratories

It is upwardly compatible with most Bourne shell features.

It has interactive features like C Shell, but executes faster and has extended inline command editing capability.

The ksh93 version supports associative arrays and built-in floating point arithmetic.

Korn Shell Features

  1. Command history – Yes
  2. Line editing – Yes
  3. File name completion – Yes
  4. Alias command – Yes
  5. Restricted shells – Yes
  6. Job control – Yes


All shell scripts for the KSH shell start with the first line:


This is called a shebang, a hashbang, hashpling, or pound bang. The following is a KSH shell script file example:

echo "Hello World!"

You can find ksh path using which command:
$ which ksh

Setup a root user password

To setup root password for first time, use mysqladmin command at shell prompt as follows:
$ mysqladmin -u root password NEWPASSWO
If you want to change or update a root user password, then you need to use the following command:
$ mysqladmin -u root -p'oldpassword' password newpass

Procedure for setting up a MySQL user account

Login in as mysql root user. At shell prompt type the following command:

$ mysql -u root -p


$ mysql -u root -h your-mysql-server-host-name -p

Create a new mysql database called demo. Type the following command at mysql>prompt:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE demo;

Create a new user called user1 for database called demo:

mysql> GRANT ALL ON demo.* TO user1@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'mypassword';

How do I connect to MySQL database demo using user1 account?

User user1 can connect to demo database using the following shell command:

$ mysql -u user1 -p demo


$ mysql -u user1 -h  your-mysql-server-host-name-here -p demo


  • -u user1 : MySQL Username
  • -h : MySQL server name (default is localhost)
  • -p : Prompt for password
  • demo: demo is name of mysql database (optional)
September 5, 2012

You can use any one of the following commands. First login as root user (or use su – to become a root).

Once logged in as root type the reboot command to reboot the system:
# reboot
You can use schedule reboot with the shutdown command. The following will reboot Solaris box in 180 seconds with a message:

shutdown -y -i6 -g 180 " ==== Rebooting for kernel and apps upgrades ====="

You can also reboot using a specific disk and/or kernel. The following example reboots using a specific disk called disk2 and kernel:

reboot "disk2"

PHP is associated with either your web-server or external FastCGI process manager. In most cases you just need to restart web-serv

Restart PHP by restarting your web-server

Type the following command as per your web-server.

Restart Apache for php service

If you are using Apache web server type the following command to restart the php:
# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart
# apache2ctl restart

See how to restart Apache Web Server on Ubuntu Linux for more information.

Restart Nginx for php service

If you are using Nginx web-server type the following command to restart nginx:
# /etc/init.d/nginx restart
# service nginx restart
# nginx -s reload

Restart Lighttpd for php service

If you are using Lighttpd web-server type the following command to restart lightpd:
# /etc/init.d/lighttpd restart
# service lighttpd restart

Restart PHP-FAM Fastcgi for PHP service

If you are running php via PHP-FAM fastcgi manager, use any one of the following as per your version of Linux/Unix:
# /etc/init.d/php-fpm restart
OR php 5 fpm:
# /etc/init.d/php5-fpm restart
OR php 7 fpm:
# /etc/init.d/php7.0-fpm restart
# service php-fpm restart
# service php5-fpm restart
# service php7.0-fpm restart
# restart php-fpm
# service php-fpm restart

What is hostname?

A hostname is nothing but your computer or server name. One can use the hostname to identify and define itself on a network. For example, hostname www13 indicates a web server. Sometimes you setup hostname as a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) 

How To change hostname in Fedora Linux server

Steps to change your hostname on Fedora Linux:

  1. Login to your server: ssh user@server-name
  2. Become a root user: sudo -s or su -
  3. Run command: hostnamectl set-hostname new-name

Let us see steps in details to change a system’s hostname i.e. rename a computer/server name when using a Fedora Linux based system.

Find your current computer name

Type the following hostname command or hostnamectl command:
$ hostname
Sample outputs:


$ hostnamectl
Sample outputs:

   Static hostname: localhost.localdomain
         Icon name: computer-vm
           Chassis: vm
        Machine ID: c86ab4f4c14c435baff0597747b349d9
           Boot ID: 2145ab2be9de49b6bca1837bb8d5a2f8
    Virtualization: kvm
  Operating System: Fedora 28 (Server Edition)
       CPE OS Name: cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:28
            Kernel: Linux 4.16.3-301.fc28.x86_64

Fedora change hostname

Let us change hostname in Fedora Linux. For example, change hostname to fedora28-nixcraft, enter:
$ sudo hostname fedora28-nixcraft
$ hostname

Sample outputs:


As compared to hostnamectl command, hostname command just read or set the hostname for the current session. It only exists for compatibility reasons. Hence, I recommend using the hostnamectl command as discussed below.

How do I change Hostname Permanently on the Fedora Linux?

Edit the file /etc/hostname, enter:
$ sudo vi /etc/hostname
Delete the existing name and replace it with a new name:


Save and close the file. You may also need to edit the /etc/hosts file, enter:
$ sudo vi /etc/hosts
Find all references to server1 and replace with server2:   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6	fedora28-nixcraft

Save and close the file. Please note that the host name is usually set once at system startup. This is an older method but still works on all versions of Fedora Linux.

How to set the hostname on Fedora Linux

With the latest version of Fedora Linux that uses systemd, it is possible to use a single command as follows:
# hostnamectl set-hostname {NameHere}
# hostnamectl set-hostname fedora28-nixcraft

Introduction: The iptables and ip6tables commands are used to set up, maintain, and firewall rules on the Linux. You can define various tables. Each table contains a number of built-in chains moreover, may also contain user-defined chains. You can add comments to iptables. They can be instrumental in understanding firewall rules. This page shows how to add comments to iptables rules.

How to add comments to iptables rules on Linux

The syntax is as follows:
iptables -m comment --comment "comment here"
iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -m comment --comment "my LAN - " -j DROP

Where are my comments displayed?

The iptables comment appears when you try to list iptables rules using the following syntax:
iptables -L
iptables -t filter -L FORWARD
iptables -t nat -L
iptables -t nat -L -n -v | more
iptables -t nat -L PREROUTING
iptables -t nat -L PREROUTING -n -v --line-number

Adding comments to iptables rules

Let us drop or block an IP address of spammer using iptables and add comment too:
# iptables -A INPUT -s -j DROP -m comment --comment "DROP spam IP address - "
Also block port 80 and 443 (HTTP/HTTPS) along with comment:
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -m comment --comment "block HTTPD access - " -j DROP
# iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -m comment --comment "block HTTPDS access - " -j DROP

Verify it:
# iptables -t filter -L INPUT -n

Create comments with iptables firewall for NAT rules

Here I am directly editing iptables config file /etc/sysconfig/iptables on a CentOS and adding rules:

-A PREROUTING -d -p tcp --dport 1:65535 -j DNAT --to-destination -m comment --comment "KVM hos to rhel7-nixcraft VM port forwarding"

You must reload the firewall. Verify it:
$ sudo iptables -t nat -L -n -v

Adding comments to ufw firewall rules

UFW is an acronym for uncomplicated firewall. It is used for managing a Linux firewall and aims to provide an easy to use interface for the user. It works on Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, Arch Linux and many other Linux distros. To add a comment for the ufw rule:
$ sudo ufw rule comment 'my comment here'
Open port 53 and write a comment about rule too:
$ sudo ufw allow 53 comment 'open tcp and udp port 53 for dns'
Another example:
$ sudo ufw allow proto tcp from any to any port 80,443 comment 'Open web app ports'


You just added comments to iptables rules. It is beneficial for maintaining rules in the long run for sure. 

Introduction: You need to use putty on Windows version 7 or 10. It is a graphical SSH, Telnet and Rlogin client for X. It is a direct port of the Windows SSH client of the same name. Putty is a free and open source SSH client for Windows and Unix-like system. You can download and install putty from this page if not installed on your system. Once installed you need to login to the remote Linux server using this software. Each Linux server has OpenSSH server installed. OpenSSH server allows you to log in and manager server using a text-based user interface. This page shows how to restart Linux server using putty ssh client on a Windows family of operating systems.

Step 1. Download putty

Step 2. Install putty

Just double click on the downloaded file “putty-64bit-0.70-installer.msi” and install on your system.

Step 3. Connect to the remote Linux server using putty

Open the putty application from Start menu or desktop shortcut 

Step 4. Restart Linux server using putty ssh client

You must have the following information in order to reboot the Linux box:

  1. Linux server IP address or FQDN: For example, or or
  2. Linux server username: For example: vivek
  3. sudo command privileges or root account password that can be used with the su command

A note about su command

The su command stands for “switch user”, and allows you to become root user. If sudo command is not available or installed or enabled on your Linux server. Use the su command as follows to become the root user (first, log in using putty and then type):
su -

I restart Linux server using putty ssh client. It will take some time to boot the server again. So have some patience.


And there you have it, and you just rebooted the Linux server using putty client for Windows family of operating systems.